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English

[anti-both] Basics of TCP IP communications
Business Ethics
Competition on the market Mergers and Takeovers
Comunication Systems
Corporate structure
Cultural diversity
Future of IT
Management
Marketing
Motivation
Networks
Promotional tools presentation
The Role of the Government
The Internet

The WWW

Basics of TCP/IP communications

Internet Protocol (IP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are the basic tools for network communication. The name TCP/IP comes from two of the best-known protocols of the internet protocol suite, the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol. With TCP/IP you can communicate over single networks or interconnected networks (Internet).

TCP/IP was designed as a Wide-area-network (“WAN”), able to continue to function, even if part of the network was not operating (damaged or destroyed). TCP/IP uses IP-addresses, which are 32-bit numbers. To make it easier to memorize such IP-addresses, they are usually expressed as 4 8-bit numbers (example: 192.168.10.1), where each of the 4 numbers is within the range of ‘0’ to ‘255’ (there are restriction on using ‘0’ and ‘255’, avoid using them.).

Like most network protocols, TCP/IP is a layered protocol. It is a four-layer protocol including application, transport, network and link layers. Application layer (consists of FTP; SMTP; SNMP) provides services directly to an application program. Transport layer (it consists of TCP; UDP) protects the data being sent. Network (In other words, Internet Layer: IP) layer choses the next node and the link to it. Link layer (IOW, data-link layer\ Network Access Layer) controls the flow of messages on the chosen link.

TCP/IP connections work in a manner similar to a telephone call where someone has to initiate the connection by dialing the phone. At the other end of the connection, someone has to be listening for calls and then pick up the line when a call comes in. In TCP/IP communications, the IP Address is analogous to a telephone number and the port number would be analogous to a particular extension once the call has been answered. The “Client” in a TCP/IP connection is the computer or device that “dials the phone” and the “Server” is the computer that is “listening” for calls to come in. In other words, the Client needs to know the IP Address of whatever Server it wants to connect to and it also needs to know the port number that it wants to send and receive data through after a connection has been established. The Server only has to listen for connections and either accept them or reject them when they are initiated by a client.

Conceptually, software that supports the TCP protocol stands alone. It can work with data received through a serial port, over a packet-switched network, or from a network system like Ethernet. TCP software doesn’t need to use IP or UPD, it doesn’t even have to know they exist. But in practice TCP is an integral part of the TCP/IP picture, and it is most frequently used with those two protocols.


Business Ethics

Good morning ladies and gentleman. I would like to thank you all for being here. My name is Michael Bondarenko, I am a student of Higher School of Economics. Today I’d like to tell you about business ethics and social responsibility of business. In the increasingly conscience-focused (ориентированных на совесть) marketplaces of the 21st century, the demand for more ethical business processes and actions is increasing, so it’s very important to know about different views of this problem and current tends in modern business world concerned with this problem.

To start with I will give you some background information about business ethics. Then I will spend some time talking about different opinions, concerned with this theme. Thirdly I will talk about opposite ways to make the business profitable and successful. Then I will pay attention to immoral activities which companies make to achieve high profitability without producing excellent goods or services. Finally I will tell you some about my view of this problem. If you don’t mind I will answer your questions after my presentation.

Now let’s look at a first point of my presentation. Business ethics is a form of the art of applied (прикладной) ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.

And now let me go to the next part of my presentation – different approaches to business ethics. Some people argue that the objective of business and a role of managers are to make as much money as possible for company’s owners. Other people argue that companies have to be careful never to cheat customers, but for business reasons, rather than ethical ones: disappointed (разочарованные) customers won’t buy any products in future. Still other people insist, that companies have social and ethical responsibilities to bare (раскрывать) customer, their stuff, business partners, the local community, society in general and the natural environment, that are as important their responsibility to provide a financial return to their shareholders.

And now I would like to consider the opposing views of the social responsibilities of business, concerning the ethics of certain existing business practices.

The first view is that in a free enterprise (свободное предпринимательство), private-property (частная собвственность) system, a corporate executive is an employee of the owners of the business. He has direct responsibility to his employers. That responsibility is to conduct the business in accordance with their desires (желание), which generally will be to make as much money as possible, while of course conforming to the basic rules of the society, both those embodied (воплощены) in law and those embodied (воплощенный) in ethical custom. This executive shouldn’t make expenditures (расходы) on reducing pollution beyond the amount that is required by law or that is the best interest of the firm. Nor should they deliberately (сознательно) hire less-qualified, long-term unemployed workers, or workers from ethnic minorities suffering from the discrimination.

According to the alternative view of this stockholder (акционер) model, business managers have responsibilities to all the groups of people with a stake (ставка, заклад) in or an interest in or a claim on the firm. These will include suppliers, customers, employees, and the local community, as well as the stockholders. The firm that is managed for the benefit of all its stockholders, will not, for example, pollute (загрязнять) the area around its factories, or close down a factory employing several hundred people in a small town with no other significant employers, and relocate production elsewhere in order to make some financial savings.

Now let me pay attention to different ways to make company successful: the honest one, but the hardest also; and dishonest, the easiest one. Unfortunately, the majority of all businessmen follow the second path. For example, how to win a contract, that will bring lots of money to the company, the deal is made with? Of course, firms can spend great sums of money in order to prove (подтверждать), that they are the best in this market. But it’s much easier (and cheaper) to bribe (подкупить) the needed person. Some people say that business is business; that bribing, industrial espionage are ordinary things. But who will trust firm that cheats and doesn’t respect its rivals?

There are several activities which do not confirm (соответствуют) to the basic rules of society, such as bribing, for example, to win a contract, or industrial espionage, lobbing, undertaking profit smoothing or creating accounting, whistle blowing. The main problem in such cases is that these activities are not illegal; this is just a question of business ethics: the person, who is blamed for bribing, won’t be punished in some stringent ways (except, of course, cases, when he is blamed for bribing of some white-collar workers). If worst comes to worst, he could be fired. So, you see that there are no such laws, that restrict, for example, whistle blowing. And it depends only on a businessman, whether to be honest or not, respected or humiliated.

And now allow me to tell you my opinion of this problem. As for me, I consider that managers and executives should run business conforming all rules of society and optimize the business to be much profitable, using new environment-friendly technologies, modern approaches to management, and producing high quality goods. I also think that government should issue new laws which will prevent any immoral activities from business.

I’d be happy to answer your questons.


Market structure and competition.

Good morning L&G! Today I would like to give you some information about  market structure and competition.

So, when there are several companies or players on the market there is competition between them. And as a result some companies leave market, and some companies can acquire another company. But if you are a good manager you know that the competition on the market is a good thing because it helps to develop the business efficient and innovative.

So what is the definition of market structure. Market structure is a set of the main features of the market such as number of firms and its market shares and the differentiation of the product of different firms. Using these features all companies on the market divided into 3 types:

-Market leader

-Market challenger

-Market followers

 

1) So Market leader – the company with the biggest market shares. This is often the first company to have entered the field, or at the first company to have succeeded in it.

2) Market challenger – the second biggest the company in the industry. It can increase it market share by attacking the leader or by attacking various market followers.

3) Market followers –  the company have a small niche.  Most smaller companies in any industry concentrate on selling profitable niche products that are differentiated from the products of larger companies, and which have growth potential.

To withstand (сопротивление), to increase market share and to get the profit companies need to develop. Sometimes companies develop new products or services. But sometimes it is easy to acquire (приобрести) another company.

There are several ways to do it.

So one of the most popular way  is the takeovers. It’s a good thing for the successful companies for using their profits.

Takeover it’s when one large company acquires a small competitor on the same field of activity. If a company is too big to buy, it may be possible to merge with it: to combine the two companies to from a single new one.

For this a company will launch a takeover bid (предложение): a public offer to a company’s stockholders to buy their stocks at a certain price during a limited period of time.

Another way is a raid.  Is a buying the stocks on the stocks market. Because this increases demand, the stock price will immediately rise. A raid is unlikely to result in the acquisition of a controlling interest.

It is necessary to buy a controlling interest of a company. It may be 100% of the company’s stocks or only 50% plus one to gain control of a company.

All this things can be used to increase the market share of a company. But it can be dangerous, because too large a company can become uncontrollable, and also it can damage the competition.


Communication systems

Nowadays, communications between people are carried out by the use of different communication systems such as mobile phones, email or instant messaging services. Let ‘s talk about some of these systems in detail.

Email is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time. Today’s email systems are based on a store-and-forward model  in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages.

Instant messaging is a collection of technologies used for real-time text-based communication between two or more people over the Internet. An important difference between instant messaging and other technologies such as email is that chat happens in real-time. IM allows to communicate effective allowing immediate receipt of reply. Some systems permit to send offline messages that is message to person not currently online, thus removing some of difference between IM and e-mail. In many cases IM client programs include additional features which can make them  more popular. For example,  users can see each other by using webcams, or talk directly for free over the internet using microphones and headphones or loudspeakers. Many client programs allow file transfers although they are typically limited in the permissible file size. Also it is typically possible to save a text conversations for later reference.  Standard complimentary(бесплатных) IM applications offer functions such as  file transfer, contact list and the ability to hold several simultaneous(одновременные) conversations.

And now I want to describe one of the most popular IM applications that called Skype. Skype is a popular application that lets users make voice and video calls and chats over the Internet. Calls to other user within the Skype service are free while calls to be made for  a fee using a debit-based user account system. Skype has also become popular for its additional features which include file transfer and video conferencing. Skype uses a proprietary Internet  telephony network called the Skype Protocol. The protocol has not been made publicly available by skype and official applications using the protocol are close source. Skype is a peer-to-peer system rather than a client server system and makes use of background processing on computers running skype software. The original name of the service reflects it. One of the initial names for the project was “Sky peer-to-peer”  witch was abbreviated to “Skyper”. However some of the domain names associated with Skyper were already taken. Dropping the final “r” left the current title “Skype” for witch domain names were available. If you want to use this service you have to registrate.  Registrated users are identified by a unique “Skype Name”. Skype allows users these registrated users to communicate through both instant messaging and voice chat. Voice chat allow telephone calls between pairs of users and conference calling and use a proprietary audio codec. Skype text chat client allow group chats, emoticouse messages. The usual features familiar (знакомые) to instant messaging users such as users profiles, online status indicators and so on – are also included.

In conclusion I can say that different communication systems are widespread because they allow users to communicate with people all over the world.


Structure

Good morning. My name is Stas, as you know, I’m second year student of Higher School of Economics.

This evening I’m going to talk about Company Structure.

My presentation is made of 3 parts:

Firstly I give you some information about what is company structure.

Secondly I’d like to talk about types of company structures.

Finally I’ll spend some time talking about advantages and disadvantages of each structure.

I’d be pleased to answer your questions after the presentation.

Company structure is the activities such as task allocation (распределение), coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment.

Now I give you some background information about each type of Company Structure.

–         First and most common company structure is hierarchical or pyramidal structure, with one person or a group of people at the top, and an increasing number of people below them at each level.

–         Second is functional structure, in which employees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a specialized set of tasks, for instance the engineering department would be staffed only with software engineers.

–         Third type of organization is decentralized structure. It means that there are special divisions for each project, which have them own departments.

–         Fourth type is Matrix Management, in which people repot to more than one superior.

–         And last is the temporary groups, which are responsible for an entire project, and are split up as soon as it’s successfully completed.

 

My next point is advantages and disadvantages of company structures.

Hierarchical structure have clear chain of command and everybody knows who his boss is, who his subordinate is and what his is should do, but it makes difficult making decisions on each level.

Functional organization makes big manufacturing more efficient, but every department concerned with the success only itself. And there are permanently battles between departments.

If you want to make special division for each large area of manufacturing, Decentralized structure will be good choice for you. But every division is interested in its own success.

Matrix structure is good at keeping authority at lower levels, but staff reports to more than one superior.

Temporary groups have wholly autonomous. Its disadvantage is that team groups are not very good for decision-making, because they require a leader.

To sum up, I can say, that every company structure is good in its own cases. Good manager should be able to choose good way to make organization on his company more efficient.


Cultural diversity.

Good morning ladies and gentlemen.

I am a student of the Higher School of Economics and my name is Ydashina Ylia. The theme of my report is cultural diversity, in other words, how management depends on cultural diversity. Companies that want to be successful in foreign markets have to be aware of the local cultural characteristics that affect the way business is done. Cultural diversity of nations strongly influenced (зависит) by the situation in companies: from the structure of the business to relationships in the team.

Every nation has its own priority on the behavior and skills of people. For example in the countries of North America and north-west Europe, management is largely based on analyses , rationality, logic and systems , but in the Latin cultures of southern Europe and South America, personal relations, intuition, emotion and sensitivity are of much greater importance.

Protestant cultures ( like in Canada, the USA, Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Scandinavia) are essentially individualist. In such cultures, status has to be achieved. A young, dynamic, aggressive manager can quickly rise in the hierarchy. In most Latin and Asian cultures, on the contrary, status is automatically accorded to the boss, who is more likely to be in his fifties or sixties.

In northern cultures, the principle of pay-for-performance often successfully motivates sales people. But in more collectivist cultures rewards and promotion are expected to come with age and experience. On some of the principles when an employee earns (зарабатывает) more than the manager, the manager must resign (отставка) immediately.

In Latin countries matrix management is common. The task-oriented logic of matrix management conflicts with the principle of loyalty to the all-important first line superior, the functional boss.

In discussing people’s relationships with their boss and their colleagues and friends, there are two positions: universalists and particularists . The former believe that rules are extremely important; the latter believe that personal relationships and friendships should take precedence. Consequently, each group thinks that the other is corrupt. Universalists say that particularists ‘cannot be trusted because they will always help their friends’ , while the second group says of the first ‘you cannot trust them; they would not even help a friend ‘.

It is important not to forget about cultural diversity, because withthis knowledge will establish a good business that can successfullygo outside of your country


Future of IT

IT is one of the fastest growing areas nowadays. New technologies are invented every day. IT is used in such spheres of human activity as science, education, medicine, entertainment, advertising, communications, etc. In future IT will greatly change our life in all these spheres. We can’t imagine how our life will be changed by IT technologies in 5, 10 or 15 years. For example, Ken Olson, founder and chairman of Digital Equipment Corp., said in 1977, “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home”, but we can see a PC in almost every home today.

Well, I want to talk about future of mobile technologies. I would like to tell you not about far future, but about next 3-5 years of development in this field. There are two main directions of development of mobile technology: mobile phones and mobile computers.

Lets focus on mobile phones technologies. This is a very rapidly growing sphere, every week a new phone model is put on the market. In next three years we can expect to see mobile phones with touchless displays that will be thinner and lighter than we can image. They will perform all basic functions of a PC; have full-fledged camera, hard disk with large amount of memory, multiple core processors. Maybe after next 5 years mobile phones will be more powerful than modern desktops. Such things as voice and handwriting recognition, augmented reality services, payment services etc will also be used in mobile phones. In general, mobile phone will be a helper in all spheres of our everyday life instead only communication device.

Now I move to mobile computers. The modern way of development in computer technologies is creating tablet PCs. In next 5 years tablet PCs will replace notebooks and netbooks, because they will be able to perform all their functions being smaller, thinner and more convenient. Maybe they will replace common desktops too, by using special devices that allow users to make all thing they do with their home computers like gaming, printing documents, watching films, web-surfing, communication with friends, reading news, editing photos and videos.

To sum up IT technologies change our every day life from year to year. 5 years ago we couldn’t image that we would use mobile phones for web-surfing and document editing. In next 5  years world of IT technologies will be greatly changed and we can’t imagine how it will look like in next several years.


Management

Today I’d like to tell about management.

To start with, I’d like to give the general definition of management and give basic idea of it.

Management in all business areas and organizational activities are the acts of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human, financial, technological, and natural resources.

Peter Drucker, a man, who created term “Management” was writer and management-consultant. Without his analysis it’s almost impossible to imagine the rise of dispersed, globe-spanning corporations.

— It was Drucker who introduced the idea of decentralization which became a bedrock principle for every large organization in the world.

— He was the first to assert that workers should be treated as assets.

— He originated the view of the corporation as a human community built on trust and respect for the worker and not just a profit-making machine.

— He first made clear that there is “no business without a customer”.

— And it was Drucker again who wrote about the contribution of knowledge workers.

Manager’s tasks as generally are: setting the objectives, Communicate, Create new strategies and develop old tactics.

As we have manager’s side, there is also management side. It’s tasks are: Selecting new employees, supervising workers, measure the performance of a team and company, motivating staff.

Manager must decide how to achieve a paticular goal.

After that decision, a manager needs to organize his team and materials according to his plan. Assigning work and granting authority are two important elements of organizing.

Than a manager discerns his area’s needs, he may decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees.

Leading involves motivating, communicating, guiding, and encouraging. It requires the manager to coach, assist, and problem solve with employees.

There is a need to control results and take any corrective actions.

What qualities do you think make a good manager?

I think that the most important for good manager are efficiency, Well-educated, intelligent, authoritative, rational, innovative. He must be able to make quick decisions, to be able to resolve conflicts effectively. Manager should have strength and honesty in character.


Marketing

Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association (AMA) as “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings (обмен предложениями) that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”

There are two marketing concepts:

1)      Old concept emphasized on sales. Goal of this concept is promotion, which include advertising and personal selling.  Also one of the purposes of marketing is physical distribution.

2)      Modern concept includes market research. Marketer’s duty is to answer on questions “What does a consumer wants?”, “Where does he wants it?”, “How to deliver the goods chipper?”, and “How much is he willing to pay?”

When company wants to create new product to sale, it conducts marketing research. Marketers should make a decision about marketing mix, which include four Ps (product, price, place, promotion). Let’s talk about each P:

1)      Product is a tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. Intangible products are service based like a tourism and hotel industries. Examples of tangible product are computers, cars, magazines etc.

2)      Price is the amount a customer pays for the product. It is determined by a number of factors including market share, competition, material costs, product identity and the customer’s perceived value of the product. The business may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same product.

3)      Place is a location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet.

4)      Promotion is all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements: advertisingpublic relationsword of mouth and point of sale. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards. Public relations are where the communication is not directly paid for and includes press releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs and events. Word of mouth is any apparently informal communication about the product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word of mouth momentum. Point of sales is a location where consumer can purchase a product, for example grocery store, electronics store, beauty salon can be points of sales.

After marketers have identified all four Ps, they optimize each of them. They choose the best product, its price, place and ways to promote this product. After that company is ready to bring to market new product.


Motivation

Good morning. My name is Stas, as you know, I’m second year student of Higher School of Economics.

This evening I’m going to talk about Work and Motivation.

My presentation is made of 3 parts:

Firstly I give you some information two basic theories of motivation.

Secondly I want talk to you some examples of motivation.

Finally I’ll spend some time talking about how Google motivates staff.

I’d be pleased to answer your questions after the presentation.

 

Lets start with two opposing theories of work and motivation. Douglas McGregor calls them Theory X and Theory Y.

Theory X is the traditional approach which assumes that people are lazy and dislike work. Also it assumes that most people are incapable of taking responsibility for themselves and have to be looked after.

On the contrary, Theory Y is based on the fact that people have a psychological need to work, want achievement and responsibility.

 

My next point is examples of motivation staff. The most common point of view is that the best motivation tactic includes only highest salary, quarterly bonuses and benefits package. But the experience of HR managers shows that staff is more motivated with another things.

Location of the office is more important for majority. Also for motivation staff companies can use them image. Flexible work time, free-of-charge or low price meal, newspapers in the office, recreation places, discount on company products, good work place environment, ability to work remotely are good examples of staff motivation. All this things make the job more desired. As for me the most important motivation is job secure.

 

And my last point is how Google motivates employees. Google is concerned about its image. Company publishes all information about itself all over the Internet. It makes special design for each office. Google allows employee to use scooters at the office, also every employee can keep a pat at his workplace. Company makes very convenient recreation places with table football, billiards, video games, piano, ping-pong, where staff can relax. Also company provides its employees with gyms, massage chair, dance classes, hobby groups, free-of-charge bars, cafes, restaurant and buffets. All of this makes a very pleasant environment. Google allows employees to allocate their own working hours.

To sum up I can say that motivation is very important for each company, because staff works more efficient, if it is interested in company’s needs.


Networks

Computers and peripherals (pieces of equipment that are connected to the CPU of a computer system) connected together form a network. Networks allow communication between computers and the sharing of hardware (such as printers) and software (programs and data).

Computer networks may be classified according to the scale: Personal area network (PAN), Local Area Network (LAN), Campus Area Network (CAN), Metropolitan area network (MAN), or Wide area network (WAN).

Personal Area Network (PAN)

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that may be used in a PAN are printers, fax machines, telephones,scanners. The reach of a PAN is typically within about 20-30 feet

Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB[3] and FireWire. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA and Bluetooth.

Local Area Network (LAN)

A network that covers a small geographic area, like a home, office, or building is known as a LAN. The main computers that provide services on the network are called servers e.g. a file server provides a central storage area for data files. The computers that use the services are known as clients. The computers can be connected using various types of cabling, including the ordinary telephone system wiring. A main data communications cable connecting LANs together is referred to as a backbone. Various electronic devices are also used to amplify, filter and determine the best path for the signals. These include bridges for dividing a LAN into separate parts or connecting similar networks together, gateways for connecting different types of networks and routers for connecting different networks togethe and determining the best path (or route) for the signals. Routers are used to connect networks to form the Internet. A modem (modulator/demodulator) is used to convert signals from analogue (having a variety of levels) to digital (having only two levels, representing on and off) for connection to the ordinary telephone system. Alternatively, an ISDN (integrated services digital network) adapter or a DSL (digital subscriber line) modem can be used to allow digital signals can be used without being converted to analogue signals

Campus Area Network (CAN)

A network that connects two or more LANs but that is limited to a specific and contiguous geographical area such as a college campus, industrial complex, or a military base. A CAN, may be considered a type of MAN (metropolitan area network), but is generally limited to an area that is smaller than a typical MAN. This term is most often used to discuss the implementation of networks for a contiguous area.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

A Metropolitan Area Network is a network that connects two or more Local Area Networks or Campus Area Networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area. Multiple routers, switches & hubs are connected to create a MAN.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

Global Area Network (GAN)

Global area networks (GAN) specifications are in development by several groups, and there is no common definition. In general, however, a GAN is a model for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key challenge in mobile communications is “handing off” the user communications from one local coverage area to the next. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial Wireless local area networks (WLAN)


Promotional tools presentation.

Good morning ladies and gentleman. My name is Mikhail Bondarenko. I’m a student of Higher school of economics and today in my presentation I’m going to explain what promotion is and to tell you about the four mayor promotional tools. I will be developing five main points of my presentation. To start with I’ll give you some background information about promotion and promotion tools. Secondly I’ll spend some time talking about advertising, different types of advertising and their efficiency. Thirdly I’ll go on to PR. I’ll explain you what is publicity and its role in Public Relations. Then I’d like to tell you about personal selling and lastly I’ll give you some information about sales promotion. If you don’t mind, I’ll answer your questions after my presentation.

Now let’s look at a first point of my presentation – promotion. Promotion is an activity, such as a sale or advertising campaign, aimed to develop product or brand awareness (осведомленность), i.e. inform potential customers and distributors, dealers and retailers about the products existence, it’s features, advantages, and so on. Promotion includes four major promotion tools: advertising, PR, sales promotion and personal selling. Now budgets are always limited, so marketers have to decide – which promotional tools to use and in what proportion.

Let me now turn to the next part of my presentation – advertising. Advertising informs customers about the existence of products and services and attempts to persuade them to buy them. There are several types of advertising. Word of mouth is the best way of advertising. It occurs when people tell their friends about the benefits of products or services that they have purchased. Now companies used paid advertising instead word of mouth. Paid advertising includes sponsorship advertising – the most expensive form of advertising, commercial on TV and radio, advertising in newspapers and magazines, sandwich board man and so on.

Now what about PR? PR is concerned with maintaining, improving or protecting the image of a company or product. Publicity is the most important element of PR. Publicity is any mention of a company’s product or service which is not paid for in many medium read, viewed or heard by a company’s customers and aimed to assisting sales. More researches have shown that people are more likely to believe publicity than advertising.

The next thing I like to do is to explain what sales promotion is and how it stimulates the demand. Sales promotions are temporary tactics designed to stimulate the either earlier or stronger sales of a product. Sales promotions include free samples, coupons, price reductions, competitions and so on. During the maturity stage of a product life cycle marketers can try out a number of different promotional strategies such as reduced price packs and loss leaders.

That’s the general picture for sales promotions and now let’s looks at personal selling. Personal selling is the most expensive promotional tool and it is usually used such as a complement to advertising. As well as prospecting for customers, spreading information about company’s products or services and assisting customers with possible technical problems personal selling is an important channel of information. Via sales representatives companies can learn more about new product ideas and customer preferences.

So as we have seen from my presentation, it’s very important to decide which promotional tools to use and in what proportions.

Thank you for your attention.

I’d be happy to answer your questions.


The Role of the Government.

Good morning ladies and gentleman. My name is Stas, I am a student of Higher School of Economics. Today I’d like to tell you about the role of government and different opinions concerning to this problem. Now many experts say that the role of government is excessive (чрезмерна), so its important to have own view on this problem.

To start with I will give you some background information about functions of the government in the modern society. Secondly I will spend some time talking about opposing views on this important problem. Thirdly I will examine these approaches in more details. Finally I will express my own opinion. If you don’t mind I will answer your questions after my presentation.

Now let’s look at a first point of my presentation. These are the main statements in government budget: education, health care, social security, defense (army, navy, air force), the police, public transport. It is also responsible for right health, safety and cleanliness regulations (for factories, shops…); adequate working conditions; traffic regulations; the sale of alcohol, drags and guns; censorship of press, broadcasting, the arts and the freedom of expression.

Now let me go to the next part of my presentation – different approaches to the role of the government. Degree of government participation (участие) in country’s life is a very old subject of debates. Some people say that government’s role should not be too big because too much regulation is bad for business and economic growth in the whole. Other people think that lack of government interference in business will result in unsatisfied needs of social sector.

Let’s look at these different views in more details. A scientist named, Galbraith thinks that market system can’t satisfy all requirements of society. Market system without government participation can’t form such things like low-cost housing health care. It is important to understand that no one can die only because of its poverty (бедность). Contemporary states should be social responsible.

In good society there must be attention to those projects and activities that are beyond the time horizons of the market economy because businesses invest for short-ran return mostly. This is important for the environment, medicine end social security expenditures.

The other expert who wrote about the role of the government is Friedman. His opinion is that strong role of the government in economic sphere causes low economic growth and limitation of human freedom. He wrote in his “Free to Choose” that only person should decide how to spend its income that is left after taxes. Another essential part of economic freedom is freedom to use the resources we possess (обладать) in accordance with our own values. For example it is freedom to entry any occupation (занятость), engage in any business enterprise etc. Today you are not free to offer your services as a lawyer, a dentist etc. because you need special license.

Freedom cannot be absolute. Some restrictions on our freedom are necessary. But Friedman thinks that we have gone far beyond that point.

As for me, I think that Galbraith and Friedman are too absolute in their theories. The best state is the state in which government lays down some restrictions to avoid other, still worse restrictions which people can cause to each other and also to provide social security. I’d be happy to answer your questions.


The Internet

The Internet, or simply the Net, is the publicly available worldwide system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using a standardized Internet Protocol (IP) and many other protocols. It is made up of thousands of smaller commercial, academic, and government networks. It carries various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat and the interlinked web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. Because this is by far the largest, most extensive internet (with a small i) in the world, it is simply called the Internet (with a capital I).

Every computer that is connected to the Internet is part of a network, even the one in your home. For example, you may use a modem and dial a local number to connect to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The Internet is simply a network of networks.

Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number, called an IP Address. The IP stands for Internet Protocol, which is the language that computers use to communicate over the Internet. A protocol is the pre-defined way that someone who wants to use a service talks with that service. The “someone” could be a person, but more often it is a computer program like a Web browser.

The rapid evolution of the Internet over the last couple of years has shaped the way the world communicates both in business and in our personal lives. Connectivity is a key requirement for many products and with this connectivity, the ability to communicate over any given media using the latest protocols and multimedia formats is mandatory. Now days there are a great number of internet applications.

 

E-mail.

It’s the most popular. Electronic mail (abbreviated “e-mail”) is a method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. It allows you to send and receive letters much faster than plain mail. It is much more convenient and everybody could easily use it. But these advantages of electronic mail in their turn cause some disadvantages.

The usefulness of e-mail is being threatened by three phenomena: spamming, phishing and e-mail worms.

Spamming is commercial e-mail. Because of the very low cost of sending e-mail, spammers can send hundreds of millions of e-mail messages each day over an inexpensive Internet connection. Hundreds of active spammers sending this volume of mail results in information overload for many computer users who receive tens or even hundreds of junk messages each day.

 

Chat.

Online chat is a way of communicating by sending text messages to people in the same chat room in real-time. The oldest form of true chat rooms are the text-based variety. The most popular of this kind is Internet Relay Chat (IRC). However, there are also talkers and havens. The popularity of these kinds of chat rooms have waned over the years, but IRC’s popularity still remains strong. Also a notable number of people were introduced to chat rooms from AOL and web chat sites. The primary use of a chat room is to share information via text with a group of other users. New technology has enabled the use of file sharing and webcams to be included in some programs.

 

Video conference.

A videoconference (also known as a video teleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. It has also been called visual collaboration and is a type of groupware.

The core technology used in a video teleconference (VTC) system is digital compression of audio and video streams in real time. The hardware or software that performs compression is called a codec (coder/decoder).

 

E-Education

E-Education – is the use of new multimedia technologies and the Internet to improve the quality of learning by facilitating access to resources and services as well as remote exchanges and collaboration.

Access to the Internet needs to be complemented by applications and services. e-Education/e-Learning is an example where standardization can help to increase interoperability between the different products and the exchange of data. Standardization can also help to harmonize user interfaces which supports the usability of products.

 

One-click hosting

One-click hosting describes web services that allow any internet users to easily upload any type of file from their hard drive onto the one-click hoster’s server free of charge to have it hosted.

Most such services simply return a short URL which can be given to other people, who can then fetch the file later on. As of 2005 these sites have drastically increased in popularity, and subsequently, many of the smaller, less efficient sites have failed.

learning plays.

Collaborative work and learning plays an important role in our global economy, which is increasingly based on knowledge production and fast innovation cycles. In a networked world such collaborative processes can only be executed through dedicated computer support.

So, these applications are the most popular, but there are much more of them. And every day number of them is increasing.


WWW

WWW or World Wide Web is a system that allows user to access the documents that connected together and situated  on a different computers connected to the internet. World Wide Web is formed of millions of web-servers. Majority of resources of the world wide web is hypertext. Hypertext documents that is in world wide web are web pages. A number of web pages that are combined together by theme, design and connected using links to each other is called web site. Web Browsers are used to view web sites.

World wide web is formed of web servers situated all over the world. Web server is a program launched on a computer that is connected to the internet and that is using HTTP for transferring data. That program simply gets the request from the internet for some data and sends this data to the computer that requested it. To know where data or web site is situated world wide web uses URL (Uniform Resource Locator). That includes parts like protocol prefix, web service, domain, domain name extension, country code, directory path and document name. As it was said, web browser is used to view web pages. Technically its main function is to view hypertext. Main technologies that bring world wide web possible are HTTP, HTML and URL. Nowadays CSS is improving too.

If a user revisits a Web page after only a short interval, the page data may not need to be re-obtained from the source Web server. Almost all web browse cache recently obtained data, usually on the local hard drive. HTTP requests sent by a browser will usually only ask for data that has changed since the last download. If the locally cached data are still current, it will be reused. Caching helps reduce the amount of Web traffic on the Internet. The decision about expiration is made independently for each downloaded file, whether image, HTML, or whatever other content the site may provide. Thus even on sites with highly dynamic content, many of the basic resources only need to be refreshed occasionally. Web site designers find it worthwhile to collate resources such as CSS data and JavaScript into a few site-wide files so that they can be cached efficiently. This helps reduce page download times and lowers demands on the Web server.

The Web has become criminals’ preferred pathway for spreading malware. Cybercrime carried out on the Web can include identity theft, fraud, espionage and intelligence gathering. Web-based vulnerabilities now outnumber traditional computer security concerns, and as measured by Google, about one in ten web pages may contain malicious code. Most Web-based attacks take place on legitimate websites, and most, as measured by Sophos, are hosted in the United States, China and Russia. The most common of all malware threats is SQL injection attacks against websites.

Inventors of world wide web are Tim Bernes and Robert Caillian. The first web site was launched on the sixth of august 1991. It was something like site “how to use internet” and later there were published list of first web sites.

World Wide Web has always been improving very fast and nowadays it is one of the most spread technologies in the world. Between 2005 and 2010, the number of Web users doubled, and was expected to surpass two billion in 2010.

The main idea for the world wide web is “The World-Wide Web was developed to be a pool of human knowledge, and human culture, which would allow collaborators in remote sites to share their ideas and all aspects of a common project”.

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